HIV Vaccine Roadmap Becomes Clearer — Precision Vaccinations
Over the years, many scientists have stated that to “successfully produce a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), innovative technologies may be required.”
HIV-1 is the most common type of virus, has unprecedented genetic variability, and the ability to rapidly establish lifelong infection are just some of the hurdles researchers face in trying to figure out how to induce a protective immunity against the virus, confirms the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.
“Finding a (prevention) vaccine for HIV has proven to be a daunting scientific challenge,” said NIAID MD Director Anthony S. Fauci on March 14, 2022.
More importantly, “Candidate HIV vaccines cannot cause HIV infection.”
Since no one with HIV has ever mounted an immune response that cleared the infection, scientists don’t yet know what constitutes an effective immune response to the virus, the US NIAID wrote.
However, a new pre-human study published by the peer-reviewed journal Scientific translational medicine on September 7, 2022, proposes a clinical pathway to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine.
The large research team noted that HIV vaccine candidates tend to focus on empowering the human body to produce antibodies that bind to certain parts of the virus.
The challenge with this approach is that HIV changes its spike protein so quickly.
This means that an effective HIV vaccine must target multiple neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that cover a broad spectrum of proteins.
These researchers wrote, “An effective HIV-1 vaccine will require the induction of a neutralizing polyclonal antibody (nAb) response, but vaccine-mediated induction of such a response in primates remains a challenge. .
We found a stabilized HIV-1 CH505 envelope (Env) trimer formulated with a potent polyclonal HIV-1 receptor induced by a 7/8 Toll-like agonist correlated with protection against HIV infection. simian human immunodeficiency (SHIV) homologue.
Structural analyzes of the anti-vaccine antibodies demonstrated targeting of the Env CD4 binding site or the N156 glycan and the third variable loop base.
The isolated CH505 virus mutated V1 to evade infection and vaccine-induced antibodies were isolated.
In summary, these results define the specificities of a vaccine-induced nAb response and the protective HIV-1 vaccine-induced nAb titers necessary to protect non-human primates from low-dose mucosal challenge with SHIV carrying a primary transmitted/founder Env.
Regarding a therapeutic HIV vaccine to treat active viral infections, Research Priorities for an HIV Cure: International AIDS Society Global Scientific Strategy was published in natural medicine in December 2021.
This strategy has identified a set of questions to move towards HIV treatment that must be safe, affordable and widely applicable to everyone living with HIV.
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS for the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery, the National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS grant for the Duke Consortia for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development, and the National Institutes of Health AIDS Division Grant. These researchers disclosed no significant industry-related conflicts of interest.
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